Home - housing

Home factors such as poor parenting, marital discord, crowding, substandard housing, number of children, little interest in education, age of child (Kleine, 94) appear to be of significant importance in truancy and the cause of dropping out.

Certain family characteristics, including single-parent families, non-English-speaking families, and families that are less involved in the educational process seem to increase the rate of drop outs as well as family process variables including: permissive parenting, poor aspirations regarding schooling, negative reactions to school underachievement (Astone & McLanahan, 91; Fagon & Pabon, 90).

Housing conditions are also important since some students do not have a room or a quiet area to study due to overcrowding of their living quarters. Homelessness, living with relatives or living in poor conditions with little heating etc. may also be the reason for student lack of interest in school leading to dropping out because of the ensuing failure at school work created by home conditions.

Personal circumstances in the home such as the need to be there to care for siblings or take care of other tasks at home because parents are out working or otherwise unavailable due to health or substance abuse reasons may also cause students to be dissociated form school related work which may seem a million years away from his/her actual living conditions

As children enter middle and high school, their work becomes more advanced, and many parents feel less able to provide direct instruction and support. At the same time, schools become larger, more bureaucratic, and less welcoming to families, which may discourage parents' sense of school community and belonging, and therefore their involvement. Family involvement is an ongoing process, rather than a single moment in time. In this process, developmental and educational transitions play an important role. These transitions are periods of heightened risk for children and youth and often of decreased family involvement, but they also can be moments of opportunity. Recent research demonstrates benefits of family involvement during transitions and of educators' outreach to families during these times.

Resources are an important family attribute. Several types of family resources affect child development and hence school success such as financial resources, that can provide the means to provide a richer home environment (more books, computers) and access to better schools and supplemental learning opportunities (after-school and summer programs, tutors, etc.); human resources of parents, as reflected in their own education, that provide the means to directly improve the cognitive development of their children through reading, helping with homework, etc. and to influence their children's motivation and educational aspirations; and (3) social resources, which is manifested in the relationships parents have with their children, other families, and the schools, and influences student achievement independent of the effects of human and financial capital (Rumberger, 2001).

School structure

  • Arrange a place in the school where students can do their home work, work in groups and access resources and computers.
  • Organize certain hours every week where students have access to their teacher in order to get extra help (which they can not get at home).
  • Counseling about financial help from the municipality.
  • Co-operation with social services in order to get better housing or financial help.


  • Organise “after school groups” so that students who need more help get it from their peers rather than parents. (See learning groups).
  • Flexibility. If students need to work to pay for their own housing, give them flexibility to do some of the study over internet.
  • Put all your slides and material on a plattform on the internet where the students can access them.
  • Use Facebook or other social media where students can discuss and help each other.

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